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萬勁波:提升整體效能 健全國家創新體系

文章來源:科技日報   發布時間:2019-04-15  【字號:     】  

  我國經濟已由高速增長階段轉向高質量發展階段。建設實體經濟、科技創新、現代金融、人力資源協同發展的產業體系,必須強化創新對現代化經濟體系的戰略支撐。2013年9月,習近平總書記在中共中央政治局第九次集體學習時強調要“提升國家創新體系整體效能”。2014年6月,習近平總書記在兩院院士大會上的講話中指出:“科技創新活動不斷突破地域、組織、技術的界限,演化為創新體系的競爭”,要“加快建立健全各主體、各方面、各環節有機互動、協同高效的國家創新體系”。現代化國家創新體系是由科技創新各主體、各方面、各環節的相互關系和內在聯系構成的一個有機整體,是在更高層次、更大范圍發揮創新引領作用的組織基礎。2018年5月,習近平總書記在兩院院士大會上的講話中強調:“健全國家創新體系,強化建設世界科技強國對建設社會主義現代化強國的戰略支撐”,將創新體系建設的戰略意義提升到科技強國和現代化強國建設的高度。

  建立與高質量發展相適應的現代化國家創新體系

  2013年10月,習近平主席在亞太經合組織工商領導人峰會上的演講中指出:“我們將健全科技體制,提高科技創新能力,著力構建以企業為主體、市場為導向、產學研相結合的技術創新體系”。2011年以來,我國企業研發(R&D)支出占全社會研發支出比重均超過四分之三。以企業為主體的產學研一體化技術創新體系是現代化國家創新體系的核心。據2018年日本經濟新聞社《全球企業創新力排行榜》、福布斯雜志《全球最具創新力企業百強榜》和歐盟委員會《全球企業研發投入100強排行榜》等榜單,我國越來越多高科技企業在國際競爭中占有重要地位。創新型企業成長為世界領先企業,必然需要強化基礎研究的支撐引領和前沿技術的開發儲備。關鍵核心技術和高科技產業的競爭,本質上是基礎研究體系和技術創新體系的競爭。

  建設“全面創新驅動引領全面發展”的現代化國家創新體系,核心是建立與高質量發展相適應的技術創新體系,推動中國制造向中國創造轉變、中國速度向中國質量轉變、中國產品向中國品牌轉變。要以強大的基礎研究和應用基礎研究體系為知識基礎,形成產學研結合、上中下游銜接、大中小企業協同的良好創新格局;要以人才、資金、技術、儀器設備等要素體系及數據信息、平臺基地與科研設施體系為支撐條件,以完善的知識和技術轉移擴散體系及創新創業服務體系為創新生態。既要提高創新要素的質量,調動各類創新主體的積極性,培育專業精神,提升創新能力和品質;又要優化創新體系結構和創新生態,擴大、深化國際國內創新合作,提升創新體系的整體效能。

  從協調發展看,既要著力破解發展不平衡不充分難題、補齊短板,又要鞏固和厚植原有優勢、塑造新優勢,重點促進城鄉區域協調發展,促進經濟社會協調發展,促進新型工業化、信息化、城鎮化、農業現代化同步發展,在增強國家硬實力的同時注重提升國家軟實力。從綠色發展看,要加快構建市場導向的綠色技術創新體系,發展綠色金融,壯大節能環保產業、清潔生產產業、清潔能源產業。從開放發展看,要完善區域、國家、全球開放創新體系及空間布局,加快構建自主、協同、開放的現代化創新體系。從共享發展看,要積極應對科技創新發展帶來的新挑戰,防范化解科技領域的風險和不確定性。

  軍民融合創新是現代化國家創新體系的重要特征

  軍民融合發展是主要國家贏得國際科技和軍事競爭新優勢的關鍵之舉。2014年8月,習近平總書記在中共中央政治局第十七次集體學習時強調:“要堅定不移走軍民融合式創新之路,在更廣范圍、更高層次、更深程度上把軍事創新體系納入國家創新體系之中,實現兩個體系相互兼容同步發展,使軍事創新得到強力支持和持續推動”。2017年3月,習近平總書記在出席十二屆全國人大五次會議解放軍代表團全體會議時強調,“深入實施軍民融合發展戰略,開展軍民協同創新,推動軍民科技基礎要素融合,加快建立軍民融合創新體系”。

  早在20世紀下半葉,美蘇在航天、信息等軍民融合戰略高技術領域的競爭極大地影響了世界的政治格局。美國重視把國防科技工業基礎和民用科技工業基礎融合為統一的國家科技工業基礎,“二戰”以來,美國聯邦軍事研發預算一直超過民用研發預算,以硅谷為代表的信息高技術產業創造了美國新經濟發展的奇跡。

  建設現代化國家創新體系,必須構建一體化的國家戰略體系和能力,強化軍事需求牽引,主動發現、培育、運用前沿尖端技術,形成軍民融合深度發展格局。

  加快推進創新治理體系和治理能力現代化

  現代化創新治理體系是現代化國家創新體系的重要保障。2018年5月,習近平總書記在兩院院士大會上的講話中強調:“我們堅持以深化改革激發創新活力,推出一系列科技體制改革重大舉措,加強創新驅動系統能力整合,打通科技和經濟社會發展通道,不斷釋放創新潛能,加速聚集創新要素,提升國家創新體系整體效能”。要堅持科技創新和制度創新“雙輪驅動”,加快轉變政府科技管理職能,明確企業、高校、科研院所、新型研發機構、創新聯結組織等創新主體在創新鏈不同環節的功能定位,激發各類主體的創新創業創造活力。

  從創新發展看,科技是第一生產力,創新是第一動力,科技創新領域是最需要不斷改革的領域。要適應科技創新發展的階段性需求,將科技創新戰略、規劃與政策“嵌入”到國家發展戰略、規劃與政策的制定和實施過程中,在協同推進“供給側結構性改革與高質量發展”的大格局中協同推進“科技體制改革與科技發展”。統籌推進“抓戰略、抓規劃、抓政策、抓服務”,完善資源配置、收入分配、科研倫理、誠信責任等激勵和平衡機制,實現科技創新治理體系和治理能力現代化。

  (作者系中國科學院科技戰略咨詢研究院研究員)




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